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  PoS   WORD HIS EDU SOC LAW HUM PHIL SCI MED BUS
1  V    CONSTRUCT 1213 1084 2120 631 1441 919 1997 394 98
2  N    CONSIDERATION 1151 951 1542 1457 892 896 1483 650 88
3  N    ESTIMATE 663 711 1930 613 74 426 2529 800 462
4  N    ENTERPRISE 1438 176 910 1410 467 566 1038 135 511
5  N    TESTING 198 1418 1593 414 185 413 1870 1714 173
6  J    APPARENT 933 482 1180 724 895 720 1625 534 153
7  N    INTENTION 932 267 1210 763 836 1314 536 287 105
8  N    ABSENCE 1013 598 1459 979 1192 811 1132 803 77
9  R    RAPIDLY 975 253 836 554 277 351 2225 498 314
10  N    DIVERSITY 909 1215 1403 674 619 892 2886 178 109
 

poverty levels, as well as qualitative case studies from teachers in three states suggest that the perceptions teachers have of standards, tests, and students shape their classroom actions. These findings indicate that teachers are not likely to engage in effective classroom practices but instead engage in one-size-fits-all practices. Implications of these perceptions on professional development and talent development are discussed. Until the late 1970s, standardized testing had little effect, if any, on instruction. Instead, Goslin (1967) found that teachers seldom used the results of standardized tests, and he reported virtually no influence of test content on teaching methods or classroom content. Over the past decade, however, the importance placed on standardized tests has increased significantly (College Board, 1999). Forty-nine states have appropriated funding to establish assessment instruments as a means of interpreting educational effectiveness (Council of Chief State School Officers CCSSO, 2000). Numerous reports suggest that the increased emphasis placed on these test

 
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