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  PoS   WORD HIS EDU SOC LAW HUM PHIL SCI MED BUS
1  V    GOVERN 770 164 423 1105 368 475 516 112 63
2  R    RESPECTIVELY 405 806 1831 257 310 449 1426 1318 166
3  N    UNCERTAINTY 448 200 700 532 261 412 1448 227 156
4  N    FORMAT 200 995 713 143 527 289 2087 221 115
5  R    SHORT 612 182 476 580 460 431 466 134 170
6  J    PROFOUND 549 173 441 440 445 961 413 212 60
7  N    TRAIT 277 662 1138 165 544 1293 1664 178 78
8  R    COMMONLY 397 484 1134 367 523 441 1230 969 52
9  V    CONVEY 527 257 599 317 969 499 511 143 54
10  N    COMPLEXITY 548 502 936 490 627 571 1451 217 114
 

, especially those at the state level. The goal of the assessments is clear: Improve the education and achievement of students. My concern is the reliability and validity of the means by which government agencies across the United States believe they are "improving educational achievement. "After reviewing statewide assessment procedures, I realize that the technical difficulties in statewide assessment of social studies instruction are overlooked for the sake of quickly getting marginally acceptable test results, which pleases politicians. I also discuss the often-ignored equity issues of statewide assessment and suggest alternatives that can lead to genuine improvements in education. Before I consider the major issue of statewide assessment in social studies, let me review some key definitions of assessment measures. I have grouped them in pairs: formative and summative assessments, and reliability and validity. Formative assessment provides feedback to the learner through which he or she can improve his or her learning capacity. To be effective, tests and examinations must be

 
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[ACADEMIC] Social Studies (2003)